Simple use of sprintf

Recently I came across this line of code:

$number = $object->getNumber() . '-' . substr(('000' . $object->getCounter()), -4, 4);

It is not very intuitive but if you look at it a little closer it becomes clear that the intent of the programmer was to pad the counter with ‘0’ limiting the size to 4. It does this by starting at the 4th character from the end(-4) and then extracting 4 characters from that point. So if the counter was 77 making the concatenated number 00077, it would extract 0077. Basically the last four. This is not very good use of string functions:-)

A simple rule to remember is whenever a particular format is required is to use sprintf or one its variants. That’s what the function is intended to do. I have demonstrated the code both ways.

$dateString = '11122010';
$counter = 5;
//non intuitive
$number = $dateString . '-' . substr(('000' . $counter), -4, 4);
echo $number;

$number = sprintf('%s-%04s', $dateString, $counter);
echo $number; 

Nice and simple!

Difference between echo and print

This is one of the standard interview questions but I have never got a straight answer from an prospective applicant.

There are three main differences.

Difference 1:
echo return a void, while print returns a ‘1’. Always.

Difference 2:
echo can have multiple arguments while print cannot. So, echo ‘abcd’, ‘defg’; will work. It will output ‘abcdefgh’.

Difference 3:
echo cannot be used like a function but print can even though both are language constructs. So, this will work echo strlen(print(‘abcd’)); but this won’t echo strlen(echo(‘abcd’)); You will get a parse error.

Hope in your next interview this helps you!